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Anti-Doping

The ILS is committed to the eradication of doping from sport and to protecting clean athletes. Doping can be harmful to an athletes health, damages the integrity of sport, and is morally and ethically wrong. All athletes participating in ILS competitions must abide by the ILS Anti-Doping Rules.

1. ABOUT ANTI-DOPING / CLEAN SPORT

What is Doping?

Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs):

  • Presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete’s sample
  • Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method
  • Refusing to submit to sample collection after being notified
  • Failure to file athlete whereabouts information and missed tests
  • Tampering with any part of the doping control process
  • Possession of a prohibited substance or method
  • Trafficking a prohibited substance or method
  • Administering or attempting to administer a prohibited substance or method to an athlete
  • Complicity in an ADRV
  • Prohibited association with athlete support personnel who has engaged in doping

Why is Doping in Sport Prohibited?

The use of doping substances or doping methods to enhance performance is fundamentally wrong and is detrimental to the overall spirit of sport. Drug misuse can be harmful to an athlete's health and to other athletes competing in the sport. It severely damages the integrity, image and value of sport, whether or not the motivation to use drugs is to improve performance. To achieve integrity and fairness in sport, a commitment to clean sport is critical.

What do Athletes and Athlete Support Personnel Need to Know About Anti-Doping?

“Every athlete has the right to clean sport!”

Any athlete may be tested in- and out-of-competition, anytime, anywhere and with no advance notice.

The principle of strict liability applies in anti-doping – if it is in the athlete’s body, the athlete is responsible for it.

Athletes’ responsibilities include (but are not limited to):

  • complying with the ILS Anti-Doping Rules (in line with the World Anti-Doping Code);
  • being available for sample collection (urine or blood), whether in-competition or out-of-competition;
  • ensuring that no prohibited substance enters his body and that no prohibited method is used;
  • making sure that any treatment is not prohibited according to the Prohibited List in force and checking this with the prescribing physicians, or directly with the ILS if necessary;
  • applying to the ILS (or national anti-doping organisation if the athlete is a national level athlete ) if no alternative permitted treatment is possible and a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) is required (see the ILS TUE application process);
  • reporting immediately for sample collection after being notified of a doping control;
  • ensuring the accuracy of the information entered on the doping control form during sample collection (including stating any medications and supplements taken within the seven days prior to sample collection, and where the sample collected is a blood sample, blood transfusions within the previous three months);
  • cooperating with anti-doping organisations investigating anti-doping rules violations (ADRVs); and
  • not working with coaches, trainers, physicians or other athlete support personnel who are ineligible on account of an ADRV or who have been criminally convicted or professionally disciplined in relation to doping (see WADA’s Prohibited Association List).

Note: during doping control, the athlete must remain within direct observation of the Doping Control Officer (DCO) or chaperone at all times from when the initial contact is made until the completion of the sample collection procedure. The athlete must also produce identification upon request.

Athletes’ rights include (but are not limited to):

  • during the doping control:
    • bringing a representative and, if available, an interpreter;
    • asking for additional information about the sample collection process;
    • requesting a delay in reporting to the doping control station for valid reasons (International Standard for Testing and Investigations Art. 5.4.4) ; and
    • requesting modifications for athletes with impairments (if applicable).
  • requesting and attending the B sample analysis (in the case of an Adverse Analytical Finding); and
  • in the case of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) being asserted, the athlete has the right to a fair hearing and the right to appeal the hearing decision.

Coaches, trainers, managers, agents and other support personnel have a role in defending clean sport and supporting the athletes in the anti-doping processes.

Athlete Support Personnels’ obligations include (but are not limited to):

  • knowing and complying with all applicable anti-doping policies and rules, including the ILS Anti-Doping Rules (in line with the World Anti-Doping Code); and
  • refraining from possessing a prohibited substance (or a prohibited method)*, administering any such substance or method to an athlete, trafficking, covering up an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV) or other forms of complicity and associating with a person convicted of doping (prohibited association). These are ADRVs applicable to Athlete Support Personnel under Article 2 of the World Anti-Doping Code.

* unless the Athlete Support Personnel can establish that the possession is consistent with a TUE granted to an athlete or other acceptable justification. Acceptable justification would include, for example, a team doctor carrying Prohibited Substances for dealing with acute and emergency situations.

Athlete Support Personnel’s rights include (but are not limited to):

  • In the case of an ADRV being asserted, the Athlete Support Personnel has the right to a fair hearing and the right to appeal the hearing decision.

What Is WADA and What Is Its Role?

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established in 1999 as an independent international agency and is composed and funded equally by the sport movement and governments of the world. Its key activities include in particular scientific research, education, development of anti-doping capacities, investigations and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code and its application by Code signatories (International Federations, National Anti-Doping Organisations, Major Event Organisations, etc.).

For more information about WADA, consult:

Wat is the Role of the International Federation (IF)?

Anti-doping activities required of IFs by the World Anti-Doping Code include conducting in-competition and out-of-competition testing, providing education programs and sanctioning those who commit anti-doping rule violations. If you have any anti-doping queries, please contact the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator.

Wat is the Role of the National Anti-Doping Organisations (NADOs)?

NADOs are organisations designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to adopt and implement national anti-doping rules, carry out anti-doping education, plan tests and adjudicate anti-doping rule violations at a national level. They may also test athletes from other countries competing within that nation’s borders.

Check the list of NADOs to find out who to contact in your country.

If a NADO has not been designated in a country, the National Olympic Committee (NOC), if there is no NADO, takes over these responsibilities. In a number of regions of the world, countries have pooled their resources together to create a Regional Anti-Doping Organisation (RADO) responsible for conducting anti-doping activities in the region in support of NADOs.

Check the list of RADOs.

RADOs bring together geographically-clustered groups of countries where there are limited or no anti-doping activities. The RADOs provide anti-doping education for athletes, coaches and support personnel, testing of athletes, training of local personnel to undertake this task and an administrative framework to operate within.

2. DOCUMENTS/ REGULATIONS

The ILS Anti-Doping Rules are based on the World Anti-Doping Code and have been adapted to Lifesaving.

The World Anti-Doping Code is the core document that provides the framework for harmonized anti-doping policies, rules and regulations within sport organisations and among public authorities. It works in conjunction with 5 International Standards aimed at bringing harmonization among anti-doping organisations in various areas: Testing & Investigations (ISTI), Laboratories (ISL), Therapeutic Use Exemptions (ISTUE), Protection of Privacy and Personal Information (ISPPPI), and the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods.

3. TESTING & INTELLIGENCE

The aim of testing is to detect and deter doping among athletes to protect clean athletes.

Any athlete under the testing jurisdiction of the ILS may be tested at any time, with no advance notice, in- or out-of-competition, and be required to provide a urine or blood sample.

What are Testing Pools and Why Are Whereabouts Important for Clean Sport?

No-advance notice out-of-competition testing is one of the most powerful means of deterrence and detection of doping. To support this type of testing, the ILS has created testing pools as part of its testing program.

Certain athletes in the ILS testing pools, such as those in the Registered Testing Pool (RTP), are required to provide information on their whereabouts in ADAMS, WADA’s online anti-doping administration and management system.

The ILS updates the composition of the testing pools (RTP) regularly/at least yearly. Athletes in the RTP are chosen based on set criteria.

How Do Athletes Know They Need to Provide Whereabouts?

Athletes who need to provide whereabouts in ADAMS for the ILS are notified by the ILS of their inclusion in the ILS' testing pool as well as what information exactly is required of them, how to use ADAMS, deadlines to submit this information and any consequences if the information required is not submitted.

What Should Athletes Do If They Wish To Retire or Return To Competition After Retiring?

All ILS-licensed athletes who decide to retire from competition must inform the ILS.

For RTP athletes, as soon as the retirement is officially confirmed to the ILS, the athlete will be withdrawn from the ILS’s RTP with immediate effect. If an athlete wishes to resume competing, they will not be able to do so until they have given the ILS written notice of their intent to resume competing and made themselves available for testing for a period of six months. Please consult Article 5.6 of the ILS Anti-Doping Rules.

4. PROHIBITED LIST

The Prohibited List identifies substances and methods prohibited in-competition, at all times (i.e. in- and out-of-competition) and in particular sports. Substances and methods are classified by categories (e.g. steroids, stimulants, masking agents). The list is updated annually following an extensive consultation process facilitated by WADA.

It is each athlete’s responsibility to ensure that no prohibited substance enters his/her body and that no prohibited method is used.

Many of the substances on the Prohibited List have no medical application, but for those that do, the list only contains the generic names of the pharmaceutical substances; the list does not contain brand names of the medications, which vary from country to country.

Before taking any medication, please make sure to check with your prescribing physician that it does not contain a prohibited substance.

  1. Check that the generic name or International Non-proprietary Name (INN) of any active ingredient is not prohibited under the Prohibited List (‘in-competition only’ or at ‘all times’). For example, Modafinil (INN) is prohibited in-competition according to the Prohibited List and is in sold in English-speaking countries under brand names such as Alertec®, Modavigil® and Provigil®. These brand names do not appear on the List.
  2. Check that the medication does not contain any pharmaceutical substances that would fall within a general category that is prohibited. Many sections of the Prohibited List only contain a few examples and state that other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s) are also prohibited.
  3. Be aware that intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 50mL per 6 hour period are prohibited, regardless of the status of the substances.
  4. If you have any doubt, contact the ILS (or your NADO if you are a national-level athlete).
  5. The ILS will only allow an athlete to use a prohibited substance for medical reasons if the athlete has a valid Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) for the substance that the ILS has granted or recognized.

5. THERAPEUTIC USE EXEMPTIONS (TUEs)

A TUE is a certificate granted by an anti-doping organisation (IF for international-level athletes and NADO for national-level athletes). The certificate is for a set prohibited substance, in certain dosages, with a limited period of validity. An application for a TUE must be based on a documented medical condition and diagnosis and the TUE will only be granted under strict criteria laid out in the International Standard of TUEs.

Athletes must absolutely avoid taking a medication with a prohibited substance without a valid TUE.

The presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete’s sample without a valid TUE is an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV), as are the use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method, possession, administration or attempted administration.

Athletes must therefore consult the Prohibited List with their prescribing physician before taking a medication to ensure that no prohibited substance is contained in the medication needed.

An International-Level Athlete whose illness or condition requires treatment with a prohibited substance or method must apply to the ILS for a TUE.

Process to apply for a TUE (Therapeutic Use Exemption)

National-Level Athletes are to apply to their National Anti-Doping Organisations (NADO) for a TUE – list of NADOs.

Where the Athlete already has a TUE granted by his or her National Anti-Doping Organisation (NADO) for the substance or method in question, if that TUE meets the criteria set out in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, then ILS will recognise it. If ILS considers that the TUE does not meet those criteria and refuses to recognise it, it will notify the Athlete and his or her National Anti-Doping Organisation promptly, with reasons.

The Athlete or the National Anti-Doping Organisation shall have 21 days from such notification to refer the matter to WADA for review. If the matter is referred to WADA for review, the TUE granted by the National Anti-Doping Organisation remains valid for national-level Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing (but is not valid for international-level Competition) pending WADA’s decision.

If the matter is not referred to WADA for review, the TUE becomes invalid for any purpose when the 21-day review deadline expires.

If the Athlete does not already have a TUE granted by his or her National Anti-Doping Organisation for the substance or method in question, the Athlete must apply directly to ILS for a TUE as soon as the need arises.

If ILS denies the Athlete’s application, it must notify the Athlete promptly, with reasons.

If ILS grants the Athlete’s application, it will notify not only the Athlete but also his or her National Anti-Doping Organisation. Here again, if the National Anti-Doping Organisation considers that the TUE does not meet the criteria set out in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, it has 21 days to refer the matter to WADA for review. The TUE granted by ILS will remain valid for international-level Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing (but is not valid for national-level Competition) pending WADA’s decision. If the National Anti-Doping Organisation does not refer the matter to WADA for review, the TUE granted by ILS becomes valid for national-level Competition as well when the 21-day review deadline expires.

WADA’s role in the TUE process is two-fold. First, the Agency, through its TUEC, has the right to monitor and review any TUE granted by an ADO and, following such review, to reverse any decision. Second, an athlete who submits a TUE application to an ADO (IF or NADO) and is denied a TUE, can ask WADA to review the decision. If WADA determines that denial of the TUE did not comply with the ISTUE, the Agency can reverse the decision. WADA itself does not accept TUE applications from athletes.

6. NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

Extreme caution is recommended regarding supplement use. A number of positive tests have been attributed to the misuse of supplements, poor labeling or contamination of dietary supplements.

The use of dietary supplements by athletes is a concern because in many countries the manufacturing and labeling of supplements may not follow strict rules, which may lead to a supplement containing an undeclared substance that is prohibited under anti-doping regulations. Taking a poorly labeled dietary supplement is not an adequate defense in a doping hearing.

Neither WADA nor the ILS is involved in any supplement certification process and therefore do not certify or endorse manufacturers or their products. WADA and the ILS do not control the quality or the claims of the supplements industry.

7. SANCTIONED ATHLETES AND ATHLETE SUPPORT PERSONNEL

List of Suspended Athletes

This list is intended to inform the ILS member organisations on the athletes declared to have committed an anti-doping rule violation and sanctioned with a period of ineligibility in accordance with the ILS Anti-Doping Rules.

During their period of inedibility, the below listed athletes are prohibited to compete in all Lifesaving or other sport events with a WADA compliant anti-doping policy.

The athletes will become automatically re-eligible after expiry of their period of ineligibility.

Sport Anti-Doping Rule Violated Athlete Date of Birth Nation Sex Prohibited Substance or Method Date of Infraction Consequences Imposed
Lifesaving Article 2.1 of the Surf Life Saving Australia Jessica Flower 22/07/1982 Australia F Modafinil and its metabolite Modafinilin acid 14/01/2017 Ineligibilty ADRV 3 years 6 months

8. EDUCATION TOOLS

ALPHA - eLearning Tool for Athletes

ALPHA was developed by WADA with the input of eLearning specialists, athletes, anti-doping specialists and social scientists. It is currently available in 7 languages. The aim of this tool is to modify attitudes and have an impact on intentions to dope. It provides factual information about anti-doping (Ethical Reasons not to Dope, Medical Reasons not to Dope, the Doping Control Process, Rights and Responsibilities, TUEs, Whereabouts) and values based activities.

Play True Quiz

WADA's Play True Quiz is an interactive computer game that tests athletes and their entourage’s knowledge about anti-doping. It is currently available in 36 languages. As an integral element of its Outreach Program, WADA devoted considerable resources to the development of this interactive computer game which has been showcased at major events including the Olympic Games, Paralympic Games and many international events.

Play True - Youth version

The Youth Quiz was developed to target a younger audience by providing them core anti-doping information that better suits their level. This interactive tool has been featured at the Youth Olympic Games and other youth events. The Youth Quiz is currently available in 34 languages.

CoachTrue

CoachTrue is an online learning tool that enables coaches to learn more about the fight against doping, and thus to be more effective in preventing it. This software was developed by WADA. It provides separate platforms for elite athlete coaches and recreational sport coaches.

Coach’s Tool Kit

The Coach’s Took Kit provides anti-doping organisations, coaching associations and universities with material that can be integrated directly into existing coach education curricula or used as a stand-alone workshop.

Sport Physician’s Tool Kit (SPTK) – download version / online version

The SPTK is designed to inform sport physicians and team doctors of their specific responsibilities relating to anti-doping to ensure they are fully informed and understand issues specific to them. It also includes information on specific policies relating to Major Games such as needle policies, bringing and prescribing medication at Games.