Anti-doping Regulations

The ILS is committed to the eradication of doping from sport and to protecting clean athletes. Doping can be harmful to an athletes health, damages the integrity of sport, and is morally and ethically wrong.

All athletes participating in ILS competitions must abide by the ILS Anti-Doping Rules.

  1. About Anti-Doping – Clean Sport
  2. Documents/Regulations
  3. Testing & Intelligence
  4. Prohibited List
  5. Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs)
  6. Nutritional Supplements
  7. Sanctioned Athletes and Athlete Support Personnel
  8. Education Tools
  9. Report Doping


What is Doping?

Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs):

  • Presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete’s sample
  • Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method
  • Refusing to submit to sample collection after being notified
  • Failure to file athlete whereabouts information and missed tests
  • Tampering with any part of the doping control process
  • Possession of a prohibited substance or method
  • Trafficking a prohibited substance or method
  • Administering or attempting to administer a prohibited substance or method to an athlete
  • Complicity in an ADRV
  • Prohibited association with athlete support personnel who has engaged in doping

Why is Doping in Sport Prohibited?

The use of doping substances or doping methods to enhance performance is fundamentally wrong and is detrimental to the overall spirit of sport. Drug misuse can be harmful to an athlete’s health and to other athletes competing in the sport. It severely damages the integrity, image and value of sport, whether or not the motivation to use drugs is to improve performance. To achieve integrity and fairness in sport, a commitment to clean sport is critical.

What do Athletes and Athlete Support Personnel Need to Know About Anti-Doping?

“Every athlete has the right to clean sport!”

Any athlete may be tested in- and out-of-competition, anytime, anywhere and with no advance notice.

The principle of strict liability applies in anti-doping – if it is in the athlete’s body, the athlete is responsible for it.

Athletes’ responsibilities include (but are not limited to):

  • complying with the ILS Anti-Doping Rules (in line with the World Anti-Doping Code);
  • being available for sample collection (urine or blood), whether in-competition or out-of-competition;
  • ensuring that no prohibited substance enters his body and that no prohibited method is used;
  • making sure that any treatment is not prohibited according to the Prohibited List in force and checking this with the prescribing physicians, or directly with the ILS if necessary;
  • applying to the ILS (or national anti-doping organisation if the athlete is a national level athlete ) if no alternative permitted treatment is possible and a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) is required (see the ILS TUE application process);
  • reporting immediately for sample collection after being notified of a doping control;
  • ensuring the accuracy of the information entered on the doping control form during sample collection (including stating any medications and supplements taken within the seven days prior to sample collection, and where the sample collected is a blood sample, blood transfusions within the previous three months);
  • cooperating with anti-doping organisations investigating anti-doping rules violations (ADRVs); and
  • not working with coaches, trainers, physicians or other athlete support personnel who are ineligible on account of an ADRV or who have been criminally convicted or professionally disciplined in relation to doping (see WADA’s Prohibited Association List).

Note: during doping control, the athlete must remain within direct observation of the Doping Control Officer (DCO) or chaperone at all times from when the initial contact is made until the completion of the sample collection procedure. The athlete must also produce identification upon request.

Athletes’ rights include (but are not limited to):

  • during the doping control:
    • bringing a representative and, if available, an interpreter;
    • asking for additional information about the sample collection process;
    • requesting a delay in reporting to the doping control station for valid reasons (International Standard for Testing and Investigations Art. 5.4.4) ; and
    • requesting modifications for athletes with impairments (if applicable).
  • requesting and attending the B sample analysis (in the case of an Adverse Analytical Finding); and
  • in the case of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) being asserted, the athlete has the right to a fair hearing and the right to appeal the hearing decision.

Coaches, trainers, managers, agents and other support personnel have a role in defending clean sport and supporting the athletes in the anti-doping processes.

Athlete Support Personnels’ obligations include (but are not limited to):

  • knowing and complying with all applicable anti-doping policies and rules, including the ILS Anti-Doping Rules (in line with the World Anti-Doping Code); and
  • refraining from possessing a prohibited substance (or a prohibited method)*, administering any such substance or method to an athlete, trafficking, covering up an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV) or other forms of complicity and associating with a person convicted of doping (prohibited association). These are ADRVs applicable to Athlete Support Personnel under Article 2 of the World Anti-Doping Code.

* unless the Athlete Support Personnel can establish that the possession is consistent with a TUE granted to an athlete or other acceptable justification. Acceptable justification would include, for example, a team doctor carrying Prohibited Substances for dealing with acute and emergency situations.

Athlete Support Personnel’s rights include (but are not limited to):

  • In the case of an ADRV being asserted, the Athlete Support Personnel has the right to a fair hearing and the right to appeal the hearing decision.

What Is WADA and What Is Its Role?

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established in 1999 as an independent international agency and is composed and funded equally by the sport movement and governments of the world. Its key activities include in particular scientific research, education, development of anti-doping capacities, investigations and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code and its application by Code signatories (International Federations, National Anti-Doping Organisations, Major Event Organisations, etc.).

For more information about WADA, consult:

Wat is the Role of the International Federation (IF)?

Anti-doping activities required of IFs by the World Anti-Doping Code include conducting in-competition and out-of-competition testing, providing education programs and sanctioning those who commit anti-doping rule violations. If you have any anti-doping queries, please contact the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator.

Wat is the Role of the National Anti-Doping Organisations (NADOs)?

NADOs are organisations designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to adopt and implement national anti-doping rules, carry out anti-doping education, plan tests and adjudicate anti-doping rule violations at a national level. They may also test athletes from other countries competing within that nation’s borders.

Check the list of NADOs to find out who to contact in your country.

If a NADO has not been designated in a country, the National Olympic Committee (NOC), if there is no NADO, takes over these responsibilities. In a number of regions of the world, countries have pooled their resources together to create a Regional Anti-Doping Organisation (RADO) responsible for conducting anti-doping activities in the region in support of NADOs.

Check the list of RADOs.

RADOs bring together geographically-clustered groups of countries where there are limited or no anti-doping activities. The RADOs provide anti-doping education for athletes, coaches and support personnel, testing of athletes, training of local personnel to undertake this task and an administrative framework to operate within.


The ILS Anti-Doping Rules are based on the World Anti-Doping Code and have been adapted to Lifesaving.

The World Anti-Doping Code is the core document that provides the framework for harmonized anti-doping policies, rules and regulations within sport organisations and among public authorities. It works in conjunction with 5 International Standards aimed at bringing harmonization among anti-doping organisations in various areas: Testing & Investigations (ISTI), Laboratories (ISL), Therapeutic Use Exemptions (ISTUE), Protection of Privacy and Personal Information (ISPPPI), and the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods.


The aim of testing is to detect and deter doping among athletes to protect clean athletes.

Any athlete under the testing jurisdiction of the ILS may be tested at any time, with no advance notice, in- or out-of-competition, and be required to provide a urine or blood sample.

What are Testing Pools and Why Are Whereabouts Important for Clean Sport?

No-advance notice out-of-competition testing is one of the most powerful means of deterrence and detection of doping. To support this type of testing, the ILS has created testing pools as part of its testing program.

Certain athletes in the ILS testing pools, such as those in the Registered Testing Pool (RTP), are required to provide information on their whereabouts in ADAMS, WADA’s online anti-doping administration and management system.

The ILS updates the composition of the testing pools (RTP) regularly/at least yearly. Athletes in the RTP are chosen based on set criteria.

How Do Athletes Know They Need to Provide Whereabouts?

Athletes who need to provide whereabouts in ADAMS for the ILS are notified by the ILS of their inclusion in the ILS’ testing pool as well as what information exactly is required of them, how to use ADAMS, deadlines to submit this information and any consequences if the information required is not submitted.

What Should Athletes Do If They Wish To Retire or Return To Competition After Retiring?

All ILS-licensed athletes who decide to retire from competition must inform the ILS.

For RTP athletes, as soon as the retirement is officially confirmed to the ILS, the athlete will be withdrawn from the ILS’s RTP with immediate effect. If an athlete wishes to resume competing, they will not be able to do so until they have given the ILS written notice of their intent to resume competing and made themselves available for testing for a period of six months. Please consult Article 5.6 of the ILS Anti-Doping Rules.


The Prohibited List identifies substances and methods prohibited in-competition, at all times (i.e. in- and out-of-competition) and in particular sports. Substances and methods are classified by categories (e.g. steroids, stimulants, masking agents). The list is updated annually following an extensive consultation process facilitated by WADA.

It is each athlete’s responsibility to ensure that no prohibited substance enters his/her body and that no prohibited method is used.

Many of the substances on the Prohibited List have no medical application, but for those that do, the list only contains the generic names of the pharmaceutical substances; the list does not contain brand names of the medications, which vary from country to country.

Before taking any medication, please make sure to check with your prescribing physician that it does not contain a prohibited substance.

  1. Check that the generic name or International Non-proprietary Name (INN) of any active ingredient is not prohibited under the Prohibited List (‘in-competition only’ or at ‘all times’). For example, Modafinil (INN) is prohibited in-competition according to the Prohibited List and is in sold in English-speaking countries under brand names such as Alertec®, Modavigil® and Provigil®. These brand names do not appear on the List.
  2. Check that the medication does not contain any pharmaceutical substances that would fall within a general category that is prohibited. Many sections of the Prohibited List only contain a few examples and state that other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s) are also prohibited.
  3. Be aware that intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 50mL per 6 hour period are prohibited, regardless of the status of the substances.
  4. If you have any doubt, contact the ILS (or your NADO if you are a national-level athlete).


What is a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE)?

Athletes, like all people, may have illnesses or conditions that require them to take particular medications or undergo procedures. If the medication or method an athlete is required to take to treat an illness or condition happens to fall on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) Prohibited List, a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) may give that athlete the authorization to take a substance or use a method that is prohibited.

Applications for TUEs are reviewed by a panel of experts, the TUE Committee (TUEC).

What are the criteria for granting a TUE?

All four following criteria must be met:

  • The athlete has a clear diagnosed medical condition which requires treatment using a prohibited substance or method;
  • The therapeutic use of the substance would not produce significant enhancement of performance;
  • There is no reasonable therapeutic alternative to the use of the prohibited substance or method;
  • The necessity to use that substance or method is not a consequence of the prior use (without a TUE), of a substance or method which was prohibited at the time of use.

Who should apply for a TUE to ILS, where and when? 

First, check if the medication or method you intend to take or use appears on the Prohibited List.

You have the responsibility to inform your doctors that you are an athlete subject to doping control, and your doctors should check the Prohibited List whenever they prescribe a medication / method to you. If the substance / method is prohibited, check with your doctors if there are any alternative treatments that are not prohibited. If not, you have to apply for a TUE.

Second, check your competition level to determine to which organisation, and when to apply for a TUE.

==> If you are an International-Level Athlete (= National team Lifesaving athletes that represent the top 15 nations based on the previous World Championship results.) you must apply to ILS in advance, as soon as the need arises, unless there are emergency or exceptional circumstances.

For substances prohibited In-Competition only, you should apply for a TUE at least 30 days before your next competition.

If you already have a TUE granted by your National Anti-Doping Organisation (NADO):
Your NADO’s TUE is only valid at the national level, and you must submit a request for recognition by ILS of your TUE.

==> If you are NOT an International-Level Athlete, ILS recognises a valid TUE granted by your NADO. If you are also not a National-Level Athlete as defined by your NADO, you must apply for a retroactive TUE after being tested by ILS.

Important note:

Unless your competition level requires or permits that you apply for a TUE retroactively, taking a prohibited substance before being granted a TUE could result in an Adverse Analytical Finding and potential anti-doping rule violation. However, as stated above, a retroactive TUE may be granted where a medical emergency or an acute medical condition occurs, where failure to immediately administer a prohibited substance or method could significantly put an athlete’s health at risk.

How to apply to ILS for a TUE?

ILS encourages TUE applications using the form available in ADAMS and submitting the required medical file through ADAMS. If you do not have an ADAMS account yet, please download the ILS TUE Application Form, and once duly completed and signed, send it together with the required medical file to the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator at

Your TUE application must be submitted in legible English using capital letters or typing.

The medical file includes:

  • A comprehensive medical history, including documentation from the original diagnosing physician(s) (where possible),
  • The results of all examinations, laboratory investigations and imaging studies relevant to the application.
  • If the medical file is not in English, a summary explaining, in English, the key elements of the diagnosis, clinical examinations, medical tests and treatment plan must be provided.

Any TUE application that is not complete or legible will not be dealt with and will be returned for completion and re-submission.

To assist you and your doctor in providing the correct medical documentation, we suggest consulting the WADA’s Checklists for TUE applications for guidance and support during the TUE application process, and Medical Information to Support the Decisions of TUECs for guidance on specific common medical conditions, treatments, substances, etc.

Keep a complete copy of the TUE application form and all medical information submitted in support of your application, and proof that it has been sent.

How to submit a request for recognition of your NADO’s TUE to ILS?

Your request for recognition must be submitted using the copy of your NADO’s TUE certificate, application form (in English]) and supporting medical file. Please send it to the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator at

It is not necessary to translate all medical information into English. However, an English summary explaining the diagnosis and key information about medical exams, medical tests and treatment plans is required.

Any request for recognition that is not complete or legible will not be dealt with and will be returned for completion and re-submission.

Keep a complete copy of the proof that your request for recognition has been sent to TUE application form and all medical information submitted in support of your application, and proof that it has been sent to ILS.

When will I receive a decision on my TUE application [or request for recognition]?

ILS’s TUEC’s decision will be communicated in writing to you within 21 days from the date of receipt of the complete TUE application [or request for recognition], including the required medical information, by ILS.

How about the renewal of my TUE?

Each TUE has a specific duration, at the end of which it expires automatically. Should you need to continue to use the prohibited substance or method, it is your responsibility to submit a new application for a TUE with updated medical information ahead the expiry date, so that there is sufficient time for a decision to be made prior to the expiry of the current TUE.

What if my ILS’s TUE application is denied?

A decision to deny a TUE application includes an explanation of the reason for the denial. If it is not clear to you, please contact ILS to understand exactly why the TUE was denied. Sometimes, there may be a critical piece of information, diagnostic test, laboratory results missing, etc. Failing this:

You or your NADO may refer the matter to WADA for review no later than 21 days after the decision was rendered by the TUEC by sending the same information that you submitted to your TUEC and on which they based their decision to deny the TUE via registered mail at:

WADA Medical Director
World Anti-Doping Agency
800 Square Victoria
Montreal H4Z 1B7, QC

However, WADA is not obliged to proceed with such review. In that case, you or your NADO may appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS).

What if my NADO’s TUE is not recognized by ILS?

You and your NADO have 21 days to refer the matter WADA for review. You can appeal the decision by sending a registered letter together with the same information that was submitted to your TUEC and on which they based their decision to deny the TUE via registered mail at:

WADA Medical Director
World Anti-Doping Agency
800 Square Victoria
Montreal H4Z 1B7, QC

Pending WADA’s decision, your NADO’s TUE remains valid for national-level competition and Out-of-Competition testing only.

If the matter is not referred to WADA for review, the TUE becomes invalid for any purpose when the 21-day review deadline expires.

Can a TUE be retroactively approved?

You may only be granted retroactive approval if:

  • Emergency treatment or treatment of an acute medical condition was necessary; or
  • Due to other exceptional circumstances, there was insufficient time or opportunity to submit, or for the TUEC to consider, an application for the TUE prior to Sample collection; or
  • The applicable rules required/permitted you (see Code Article 4.4.5) to apply for a retroactive TUE; or
  • It is agreed, by WADA and by ILS that fairness requires the grant of a retroactive TUE.

How about confidentiality?

All the information contained in a TUE application and file including the supporting medical information, and any other information related to the evaluation of your TUE request is kept strictly confidential and treated in accordance with the Athlete’s Declaration contained in the ADAMS TUE process and in the ILS’s TUE Application Form. All members of the TUEC and any other authorised recipients of your TUE request and related information are required to sign confidentiality agreements and/or are subject to professional confidentiality obligations.

Please review the terms of the Athlete’s Declaration carefully. In particular, please note that should you wish to revoke the right of the ILS’s TUEC to obtain the information related to your TUE request in accordance with the Athlete’s Declaration, your TUE application will be deemed withdrawn without approval [or recognition] being granted.

Your TUE request-related information will be retained by ILS and any other authorised recipients for no longer than necessary for the purposes stated in the Athlete’s Declaration, in accordance with the International Standard for the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information. 

Contact information

For any further information and questions in relation to ILS’s personal information practices and in case you have a doubt as regards to which organization you should apply for a TUE, or as to the recognition process, or any other question with regard to TUEs, please contact: theILS Anti-Doping Administrator at


Extreme caution is recommended regarding supplement use. A number of positive tests have been attributed to the misuse of supplements, poor labeling or contamination of dietary supplements.

The use of dietary supplements by athletes is a concern because in many countries the manufacturing and labeling of supplements may not follow strict rules, which may lead to a supplement containing an undeclared substance that is prohibited under anti-doping regulations. Taking a poorly labeled dietary supplement is not an adequate defense in a doping hearing.

Neither WADA nor the ILS is involved in any supplement certification process and therefore do not certify or endorse manufacturers or their products. WADA and the ILS do not control the quality or the claims of the supplements industry.


List of Suspended Athletes

This list is intended to inform the ILS member organisations on the athletes declared to have committed an anti-doping rule violation and sanctioned with a period of ineligibility in accordance with the ILS Anti-Doping Rules.

During their period of inedibility, the below listed athletes are prohibited to compete in all Lifesaving or other sport events with a WADA compliant anti-doping policy.

The athletes will become automatically re-eligible after expiry of their period of ineligibility.

SportAnti-Doping Rule ViolatedAthleteDate of BirthNationSexProhibited Substance or MethodDate of InfractionConsequences Imposed
LifesavingArticle 2.1 of the Surf Life Saving AustraliaJessica Flower22/07/1982AustraliaFModafinil and its metabolite Modafinilin acid14/01/2017Ineligibilty ADRV 3 years 6 months
LifesavingArt. 2.1 of the Anti-doping regulations, National Olymic Committee and Sports Confederation of DenmarkJakob Juul24/07/2000DenmarkMS3. Beta-2 Agonists/Higenamine14/07/20192 years of ineligibility starting 12 August 2019
Lifesaving2.1 NZL Sports Anti-Doping Rules 2020: presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites markersJohn ElsmoreNew ZealandMpositive result for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (a metabolite of THC)14/03/20209 months starting from 14/03/2020 (= 14/12/2020)
LifesavingArticle 4.2.2 of the ADR: use of Prohibited substances Tanya Pieterse16/11/1999South AfricaFOxandrolone Metabolites, OxM1 and OxM2 and Clenbuterol24/04/20213 years of ineligibility: 01/07/2021 until 30/06/2024


ALPHA – eLearning Tool for Athletes

ALPHA was developed by WADA with the input of eLearning specialists, athletes, anti-doping specialists and social scientists. It is currently available in 7 languages. The aim of this tool is to modify attitudes and have an impact on intentions to dope. It provides factual information about anti-doping (Ethical Reasons not to Dope, Medical Reasons not to Dope, the Doping Control Process, Rights and Responsibilities, TUEs, Whereabouts) and values based activities.

Play True Quiz

WADA’s Play True Quiz is an interactive computer game that tests athletes and their entourage’s knowledge about anti-doping. It is currently available in 36 languages. As an integral element of its Outreach Program, WADA devoted considerable resources to the development of this interactive computer game which has been showcased at major events including the Olympic Games, Paralympic Games and many international events.

Play True – Youth version

The Youth Quiz was developed to target a younger audience by providing them core anti-doping information that better suits their level. This interactive tool has been featured at the Youth Olympic Games and other youth events. The Youth Quiz is currently available in 34 languages.


CoachTrue is an online learning tool that enables coaches to learn more about the fight against doping, and thus to be more effective in preventing it. This software was developed by WADA. It provides separate platforms for elite athlete coaches and recreational sport coaches.

Coach’s Tool Kit

The Coach’s Took Kit provides anti-doping organisations, coaching associations and universities with material that can be integrated directly into existing coach education curricula or used as a stand-alone workshop.

Sport Physician’s Tool Kit (SPTK) – download version / online version

The SPTK is designed to inform sport physicians and team doctors of their specific responsibilities relating to anti-doping to ensure they are fully informed and understand issues specific to them. It also includes information on specific policies relating to Major Games such as needle policies, bringing and prescribing medication at Games.

9. Report Doping

Anyone, whether an athlete, coach, team staff, medical personnel, parent or official, can report a doping misconduct and any act or omission that could undermine the fight against doping. If you have detected, identified, witnessed or know of, or have reasonable grounds for suspecting that cheating has occurred, you can contact, in strict confidence, the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator at for further guidance or any question you may have.