Anti-doping Regulations


ILS shares the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) vision of a world where athletes can participate in a doping-free sporting environment.
ILS has committed itself and its member organisations to adhere to the WADA standards and seeks to provide a clean, safe , and fair sporing environment.
“Doping” is the word that is used in sport when athletes use prohibited substances or methods to unfairly improve their sporting performance. It can be harmful to an athlete’s health, damages the integrity of sport, and is morally and ethically wrong.
ILS believes in a clean sport and to ensure the integrity of our sport is protected, we have the ILS Anti-Doping Rules in place that not only Lifesaving athletes but also Athlete Support Personnel must abide by, regardless of the level of participation in Lifesaving sport.
Anti-Doping rules exist to ensure fairness on the field of play. All rules and the fact that they are monitored and reinforced are designed to prevent any participant from taking an unfair advantage over another.
The use of doping substances or methods to enhance performance is not only wrong and unfair, but also harmful to the Athletes’ mental and physical health.

To abide by these rules, it is strongly recommended that all athletes, team coaches, medical personnel, and parents/carers as well as officials and administrators review the the sport integrity information and, as appropriate to their role, complete their equivalent National Anti-Doping Organisation (NADO) or WADA online training relevant to their role.

1. About Anti-Doping – Clean Sport

What is Doping?

Doping is not just a positive test showing the presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete’s urine sample. Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following Anti-Doping Rule Violations:

  • Presence of a prohibited substance, its metabolites or markers in an athlete’s sample
  • Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method by an athlete
  • Refusing, evading or failing to submit to sample collection by an athlete
  • Failure to file whereabouts information and/or missed tests by an athlete
  • Tampering or attempted tampering with the doping control process by an athlete or other person
  • Possession of a prohibited substance or method by an athlete or athlete support personnel
  • Trafficking or attempted trafficking of a prohibited substance or method by an athlete or other person
  • Administering or attempting to administer a prohibited substance or method to an athlete
  • Complicity or attempted complicity in an ADRV by an athlete or other person
  • Prohibited Association by an athlete or other person with a sanctioned athlete support personnel
  • Acts to discourage or retaliate against reporting to authorities

Why is Doping in Sport Prohibited?

The use of doping substances or doping methods to enhance performance is fundamentally wrong and is detrimental to the overall spirit of sport. Drug misuse can be harmful to an athlete’s health and to other athletes competing in the sport. It severely damages the integrity, image, and value of sport, whether or not the motivation to use drugs is to improve performance. To achieve integrity and fairness in sport, a commitment to clean sport is critical.

What does ‘Strict Liability’ mean?

  • The principle of strict liability applies to all athletes who compete in any sport with an anti-doping program. It means that athletes are responsible for any prohibited substance, or its metabolites or markers found to be present in their urine and/or blood sample collected during doping control, regardless of whether the athlete intentionally or unintentionally used a prohibited substance or method. Therefore, it is important to remember that it is each and every athlete’s ultimate responsibility to know what enters their body.
  • The rule which provides that principle, under Code Article 2.1 and Article 2.2, states that it is not necessary that intent, fault, negligence, or knowing use on the athlete’s part be demonstrated by the Anti-Doping Organization to establish an anti-doping rule violation.

Why is doping dangerous?

Doping can result in severe health consequences but also comes with sport, social, financial and legal consequences. For an athlete, doping could spell the end of their sporting career, reputation, and prospects both in and out of sport.

Sport Consequences

The sanctions for an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) can include:

  • Provisional Suspension. The athlete or other person is temporarily banned from participating in any competition or activity while waiting for the results management process to be complete or until the final decision is rendered.
  • Ineligibility. The athlete or other person is not allowed to compete or participate in any other activity, such as training, coaching, or even access to funding due to an ADRV. This period of ineligibility can be for up to 4 years or even life depending on the circumstances of the ADRV.
  • Disqualification of results. The athlete’s results during a particular period, competition or event are invalidated, which comes with forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes.
  • Public Disclosure. The Anti-Doping Organization (ADO) informs the general public of the ADRV.
  • Fines.

Health Consequences

The health consequences to an athlete can include:

  • Physical health. Medications and medical interventions have been developed to treat a particular condition or illness. Not an otherwise healthy athlete. Depending on the substance, the dosage and the consumption frequency, doping products may have particularly negative side effects on health.
  • Psychological health. Some doping substances may have an impact on the athlete’s mental health. Anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorders or psychosis are direct consequences from doping.

Social Consequences

Some of social consequences of doping include:

  • Damage to reputation and image, which can be permanent with media attention, and future clean performances can be met with skepticism.
  • Damage to future career prospects.
  • Isolation from peers and sport.
  • Damaged relationships with friends and family.
  • Effects on emotional and psychological well-being.
  • Loss of standing, fame, respect and credibility.

Financial Consequences

The financial consequences of doping can include:

  • Fines that an Anti-Doping Organization (ADO) may have included in their anti-doping rules including costs associated with an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV).
  • Loss of income/financial support, such as government funding, other forms of financial support and by not participating in the competitions.
  • Loss of financial support due to withdrawal of sponsor.
  • Requirement to reimburse sponsor, if included in the contract.
  • Reimbursement of prize money.
  • Impact of damaged reputation on future career prospects.

Legal Consequences

In addition to the sport, health, social and financial consequences listed above, doping can come with other legal consequences, such as:

  • Some countries have gone beyond the World Anti-Doping Code and made using a prohibited substance a criminal offence (e.g. Austria, Italy, France).
  • In some countries, ADRVs related to trafficking, possession or administering a prohibited substance or some substances on the Prohibited List are considered a criminal offence.

What do athletes and athlete support personnel need to know about anti-doping?

Athletes, their support personnel and others who are subject to anti-doping rules all have rights and responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code (Code). Part Three of the Code outlines all of the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder in the anti-doping system.

Athletes’ Rights

“Every athlete has the right to clean sport!”

Ensuring that athletes are aware of their rights and that these rights are respected is vital to the success of clean sport. WADA’s Athlete Committee (now Athlete Council) drafted the Athletes’ Anti-Doping Rights Act (Act). This Act is made up of two parts. Part one sets out rights that are found in the Code and International Standards. Part two sets out recommended athlete rights that are not found in the Code or International Standards but are rights that athletes recommend that Anti-Doping Organizations (ADOs) adopt for best practice.

Athlete rights outlined in the Code include:

  • Equal opportunities in their pursuit of sport, free of participation by other athletes who dope
  • Equitable and fair testing programs
  • A Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) application process
  • To be heard, to have a fair hearing within a reasonable time by a fair, impartial and operationally independent hearing panel, with a timely reasoned decision specifically including an explanation of the reasons of the decision
  • Right to appeal the hearing decision
  • Any ADO that has jurisdiction over them will be accountable for its action and an athlete shall have the ability to report any compliance issue
  • Ability to report Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) through an anonymous mechanism and not be subjected to threats or intimidation
  • Receiving anti-doping education
  • Fair handling of their personal information by ADOs in accordance with the International Standard for the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information (ISPPPI) and any local applicable law
  • To pursue damages from another athlete whose actions have damaged that athlete by the commission of an ADRV
  • During the sample collection process, right to:
    • See the identification of the Doping Control Officer (DCO)
    • Request additional information about the sample collection process, about the authority under which it will be carried out and on the type of sample collection
    • Hydrate
    • Be accompanied by a representative and, if available, an interpreter
    • Request a delay in reporting to the doping control station for valid reasons (International Standard for Testing and Investigations Art. 5.4.4)
    • Request modifications for athletes with impairments (if applicable)
    • Be informed of their rights and responsibilities
    • Receive a copy of the records of the process
    • Have further protections for “protected persons” because of their age or lack of legal capacity
    • Request and attend the B sample analysis (in the case of an Adverse Analytical Finding)

Athletes’ Responsibilities

Athletes’ rights to clean sport come with corresponding responsibilities, and athletes may be tested in-and out-of-competition, anytime, anywhere and with no advance notice.

Their clean sport responsibilities include (but are not limited to):

  • Complying with the ILS Anti-Doping Rules (in line with the World Anti-Doping Code)
  • Being available for sample collection (urine, blood or dried blood spot (DBS)), whether in-competition or out-of-competition
  • Remaining within direct observation of the Doping Control Officer (DCO) or chaperone at all times from notification until the completion of the sample collection process
  • Providing identification upon request during the sample collection process
  • Ensuring that no prohibited substance enters their body and that no prohibited method is used
  • on them
  • Ensuring that any treatment is not prohibited according to the Prohibited List in force and checking this with the prescribing physicians, or directly with ILS if necessary
  • Applying to ILS if no alternative permitted treatment is possible and a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) is required (see ILS TUE application process)
  • Reporting immediately for sample collection after being notified of being selected for doping
  • control
  • Ensuring the accuracy of the information entered on the Doping Control Form (DCF)
  • Cooperating with ADOs investigating ADRVs
  • Not working with coaches, trainers, physicians or other athlete support personnel who are ineligible on account of an ADRV or who have been criminally convicted or professionally disciplined in relation to doping (see WADA’s Prohibited Association List)

Athlete Support Personnel Rights

Athlete support personnel and other persons also have rights and responsibilities under the Code.

These include:

  • Right to a fair hearing, before an independent hearing panel
  • Right to appeal the hearing decision
  • Rights regarding data protection, according to the ISPPPI and any local applicable law

Athlete Support Personnel Responsibilities

Athlete support personnel’s responsibilities under the Code include:

  • Using their influence on athlete values and behaviors to foster clean sport behaviors
  • Knowing and complying with all applicable anti-doping policies and rules
  • Cooperating with the athlete doping control program
  • Cooperating with ADOs investigating Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs)
  • Informing the relevant IF and/or NADO if they have committed an ADRV in the last 10 years
  • Refraining from possessing a prohibited substance (or a prohibited method)*, administering any such substance or method to an athlete, trafficking, covering up an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV) or other forms of complicity and associating with a person convicted of doping (prohibited association).
    *Unless the athlete support personnel can establish that the possession is consistent with a
    TUE granted to an athlete or other acceptable justification. Acceptable justification would
    include, for example, a team doctor carrying prohibited substances for dealing with acute and
    emergency situations.

ILS Recommendation to Athlete Support Personnel

Here are some ways athlete support personnel can support their athletes in their education on clean sport:

What are the organizations involved in protecting clean sport?

World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)

WADA was established in 1999 as an international independent agency to lead a collaborative worldwide movement for doping-free sport. WADA’s governance and funding are based on equal partnership between the Sport Movement and Governments of the world.

WADA’s primary role is to develop, harmonize and coordinate anti-doping rules and policies across all sports and countries. WADA’s key activities include:

  • Scientific and social science research
  • Education
  • Intelligence & investigations
  • Development of anti-doping capacity and capability
  • Monitoring of compliance with the World Anti-Doping Program.

For more information about WADA, consult:

International Federation (IF)

ILS is responsible for implementing an effective and Code-compliant anti-doping program for Lifesaving sport. Under the World Anti-Doping Code (Code), ILS is required to carry out the following anti-doping activities:

  • Providing education programs
  • Analyzing the risk of doping in Lifesaving sport
  • Conducting in-competition and out-of-competition testing
  • Management of Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs) for international-level athletes
  • Results Management including sanctioning those who commit Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs)

If you have any anti-doping queries, please contact the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator:

National Anti-Doping Organizations (NADOs)

NADOs are organizations designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to:

  • Adopt and implement anti-doping rules at a national level
  • Plan and carry out anti-doping education
  • Plan tests and adjudicate anti-doping rule violations at a national level
  • Test athletes from other countries competing within that nation’s borders if required to

Check the list of NADOs to find out who to contact in your country. If a NADO has not been designated in a country, the National Olympic Committee (NOC) takes over these responsibilities.

Regional Anti-Doping Organizations (RADOs)

In a number of regions of the world, countries have pooled their resources together to create a RADO responsible for conducting anti-doping activities in the region in support of NADOs.

RADOs bring together geographically-clustered groups of countries where there are limited or no anti-doping activities, for which they take over responsibility, including:

  • Providing anti-doping education for athletes, coaches and support personnel
  • Testing athletes
  • Training of local sample collection personnel (doping control officers/chaperones)
  • An administrative framework to operate within. 

Check the list of RADOs.

3. The Prohibited List

The Prohibited List (List) identifies substances and methods prohibited in-competition, at all times (i.e. in- and out-of-competition) and in particular sports. Substances and methods are classified by categories (e.g. steroids, stimulants, masking agents). The List is updated at least annually following an extensive consultation process facilitated by WADA.

It is each athlete’s responsibility to ensure that no prohibited substance enters his/her body and that no prohibited method is used.

The List only contains the generic names of the pharmaceutical substances. The List does not contain brand names of the medications, which vary from country to country. Before taking any medication, an athlete should check with the prescribing physician that it does not contain a prohibited substance:

  1. Check that the generic name or International Non-proprietary Name (INN) of any active
    ingredient is not prohibited (‘in-competition only’ or at ‘all times’).
  2. Check that the medication does not contain any pharmaceutical substances that would fall
    within a general category that is prohibited. Many sections of the Prohibited List only contain a
    few examples and state that other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar
    biological effect(s) are also prohibited.
  3. Be aware that intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 50mL per 6-hour period
    are prohibited, regardless of the status of the substances.
  4. Be aware that since 1 January 2022, all injectable routes of administration will now be
    prohibited for glucocorticoids during the in-competition period.
    Note: Oral administration of glucocorticoids remains prohibited in-competition. Other routes of
    administration are not prohibited when used within the manufacturer’s licensed doses and
    therapeutic indications.
  5. Be aware that as of 1 January 2024, the narcotic tramadol will be prohibited in-competition.
  6. If you have any doubt, contact the ILS Headquarters (

An athlete will only be allowed to use a prohibited substance for medical reasons if the athlete has a valid Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) for the substance that ILS has granted or recognized.

Useful Online Databases

The following National Anti-Doping Organizations make online country-specific drug reference databases available for checking the status of a medication bought in that country.

  • GlobalDRO (for Australia, Canada, UK, USA, Switzerland, Japan and New Zealand)
  • A list of other country-specific databased can be found here.

Note: WADA and ILS do not take responsibility for the information provided on these websites.

4. Risks of Supplement Use

Extreme caution is recommended regarding supplement use. A number of positive tests have been
attributed to the misuse of supplements, poor labeling or contamination of dietary supplements.

The use of supplements by athletes is a concern because in many countries the manufacturing and
labeling of supplements may not follow strict rules, which may lead to a supplement containing an
undeclared substance that is prohibited under anti-doping regulations. Pleading that a poorly labeled
dietary supplement was taken is not an adequate defense in a doping hearing.

Risks of supplements include:

  • Manufacturing standards, which are often less strict when compared with medications. These lower standards often lead to supplement contamination with an undeclared prohibited substance, for example when manufacturing equipment isn’t cleaned to the required standards and contains remnants of ingredients from a previous product.
  • Fake or low-quality products which may contain prohibited substances and be harmful to health.
  • Mislabeling of supplements with ingredients wrongly listed and prohibited substances not identified on the product label.
  • False claims that a particular supplement is endorsed by Anti-Doping Organizations (ADOs) or that it is “safe for athletes”. Remember, ADOs do not certify supplements and the product label may contain misleading messaging.

Athletes should do a risk-benefit assessment if they are considering the use of supplements. The first
step of such an assessment is to consider whether a “food-first” approach meets the athlete’s needs.
Whenever possible, such assessment should be done with a support of a certified nutritionist or other
qualified professional who is familiar with the global and ILS Anti-Doping Rules.

Checking your supplements

If, after careful consideration, an athlete chooses to use supplements, they must take the necessary
steps to minimize the risks associated with supplements. This includes:

  • Thorough research on the type and dose of the supplement, preferably with the advice of a certified nutritionist or other qualified professional who is familiar with Anti-Doping Rules.
  • Only selecting supplements that have been “batch-tested” by an independent company.
  • Remembering what supplement they take, keep some of it in case they get a positive result, and keep any proof of purchase and declare it on the Doping Control Form (DCF).

Remember, no supplement is 100% risk-free but athletes and athlete support personnel can take
certain steps to minimize these risks.

Neither WADA nor ILS is involved in any supplement certification process and therefore do not certify
or endorse manufacturers or their products. WADA and ILS do not control the quality or the claims of
the supplements industry.

5. Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs)

What is a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE)?

Athletes, like all people, may have illnesses or conditions that require them to take particular medications or undergo procedures. If the medication or method an athlete is required to take to treat an illness or condition happens to fall on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) Prohibited List, a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) may give that athlete the authorization to take a substance or use a method that is prohibited.

Applications for TUEs are reviewed by a panel of experts, the TUE Committee (TUEC).

What are the criteria for granting a TUE?

All four following criteria must be met:

  • The athlete has a clear diagnosed medical condition which requires treatment using a prohibited substance or method;
  • The therapeutic use of the substance would not produce significant enhancement of performance;
  • There is no reasonable therapeutic alternative to the use of the prohibited substance or method;
  • The necessity to use that substance or method is not a consequence of the prior use (without a TUE), of a substance or method which was prohibited at the time of use.

Who should apply for a TUE to ILS, where and when? 

First, check if the medication or method you intend to take or use appears on the Prohibited List.

You have the responsibility to inform your doctors that you are an athlete subject to doping control, and your doctors should check the Prohibited List whenever they prescribe a medication / method to you. If the substance / method is prohibited, check with your doctors if there are any alternative treatments that are not prohibited. If not, you have to apply for a TUE.

Second, check your competition level to determine to which organisation, and when to apply for a TUE.

==> If you are an International-Level Athlete (= National team Lifesaving athletes that represent the top 15 nations based on the previous World Championship results.) you must apply to ILS in advance, as soon as the need arises, unless there are emergency or exceptional circumstances.

For substances prohibited In-Competition only, you should apply for a TUE at least 30 days before your next competition.

If you already have a TUE granted by your National Anti-Doping Organisation (NADO):
Your NADO’s TUE is only valid at the national level, and you must submit a request for recognition by ILS of your TUE.

==> If you are NOT an International-Level Athlete, ILS recognises a valid TUE granted by your NADO. If you are also not a National-Level Athlete as defined by your NADO, you must apply for a retroactive TUE after being tested by ILS.

Important note:

Unless your competition level requires or permits that you apply for a TUE retroactively, taking a prohibited substance before being granted a TUE could result in an Adverse Analytical Finding and potential anti-doping rule violation. However, as stated above, a retroactive TUE may be granted where a medical emergency or an acute medical condition occurs, where failure to immediately administer a prohibited substance or method could significantly put an athlete’s health at risk.

How to apply to ILS for a TUE?

ILS encourages TUE applications using the form available in ADAMS and submitting the required medical file through ADAMS. If you do not have an ADAMS account yet, please download the ILS TUE Application Form, and once duly completed and signed, send it together with the required medical file to the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator at

Your TUE application must be submitted in legible English using capital letters or typing.

The medical file includes:

  • A comprehensive medical history, including documentation from the original diagnosing physician(s) (where possible),
  • The results of all examinations, laboratory investigations and imaging studies relevant to the application.
  • If the medical file is not in English, a summary explaining, in English, the key elements of the diagnosis, clinical examinations, medical tests and treatment plan must be provided.

Any TUE application that is not complete or legible will not be dealt with and will be returned for completion and re-submission.

Keep a complete copy of the TUE application form and all medical information submitted in support of your application, and proof that it has been sent.

How to submit a request for recognition of your NADO’s TUE to ILS?

Your request for recognition must be submitted using the copy of your NADO’s TUE certificate, application form (in English]) and supporting medical file. Please send it to the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator at

It is not necessary to translate all medical information into English. However, an English summary explaining the diagnosis and key information about medical exams, medical tests and treatment plans is required.

Any request for recognition that is not complete or legible will not be dealt with and will be returned for completion and re-submission.

Keep a complete copy of the proof that your request for recognition has been sent to TUE application form and all medical information submitted in support of your application, and proof that it has been sent to ILS.

When will I receive a decision on my TUE application [or request for recognition]?

ILS’s TUEC’s decision will be communicated in writing to you within 21 days from the date of receipt of the complete TUE application [or request for recognition], including the required medical information, by ILS.

How about the renewal of my TUE?

Each TUE has a specific duration, at the end of which it expires automatically. Should you need to continue to use the prohibited substance or method, it is your responsibility to submit a new application for a TUE with updated medical information ahead the expiry date, so that there is sufficient time for a decision to be made prior to the expiry of the current TUE.

What if my ILS’s TUE application is denied?

A decision to deny a TUE application includes an explanation of the reason for the denial. If it is not clear to you, please contact ILS to understand exactly why the TUE was denied. Sometimes, there may be a critical piece of information, diagnostic test, laboratory results missing, etc. Failing this:

You or your NADO may refer the matter to WADA for review no later than 21 days after the decision was rendered by the TUEC by sending the same information that you submitted to your TUEC and on which they based their decision to deny the TUE via registered mail at:

WADA Medical Director
World Anti-Doping Agency
800 Square Victoria
Montreal H4Z 1B7, QC

However, WADA is not obliged to proceed with such review. In that case, you or your NADO may appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS).

What if my NADO’s TUE is not recognized by ILS?

You and your NADO have 21 days to refer the matter WADA for review. You can appeal the decision by sending a registered letter together with the same information that was submitted to your TUEC and on which they based their decision to deny the TUE via registered mail at:

WADA Medical Director
World Anti-Doping Agency
800 Square Victoria
Montreal H4Z 1B7, QC

Pending WADA’s decision, your NADO’s TUE remains valid for national-level competition and Out-of-Competition testing only.

If the matter is not referred to WADA for review, the TUE becomes invalid for any purpose when the 21-day review deadline expires.

Can a TUE be retroactively approved?

You may only be granted retroactive approval if:

  • Emergency treatment or treatment of an acute medical condition was necessary; or
  • Due to other exceptional circumstances, there was insufficient time or opportunity to submit, or for the TUEC to consider, an application for the TUE prior to Sample collection; or
  • The applicable rules required/permitted you (see Code Article 4.4.5) to apply for a retroactive TUE; or
  • It is agreed, by WADA and by ILS that fairness requires the grant of a retroactive TUE.

How about confidentiality?

All the information contained in a TUE application and file including the supporting medical information, and any other information related to the evaluation of your TUE request is kept strictly confidential and treated in accordance with the Athlete’s Declaration contained in the ADAMS TUE process and in the ILS’s TUE Application Form. All members of the TUEC and any other authorised recipients of your TUE request and related information are required to sign confidentiality agreements and/or are subject to professional confidentiality obligations.

Please review the terms of the Athlete’s Declaration carefully. In particular, please note that should you wish to revoke the right of the ILS’s TUEC to obtain the information related to your TUE request in accordance with the Athlete’s Declaration, your TUE application will be deemed withdrawn without approval [or recognition] being granted.

Your TUE request-related information will be retained by ILS and any other authorised recipients for no longer than necessary for the purposes stated in the Athlete’s Declaration, in accordance with the International Standard for the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information. 

Contact information

For any further information and questions in relation to ILS’s personal information practices and in case you have a doubt as regards to which organization you should apply for a TUE, or as to the recognition process, or any other question with regard to TUEs, please contact: the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator at

6. Testing

The aim of testing is to protect clean athletes through the detection and deterrence of doping.

Any athlete under the testing jurisdiction of ILS may be tested at any time, with no advance notice, in-
or out-of-competition, and be required to provide a urine, blood sample or blood for a Dried Blood
Spot (DBS) analysis.

Sample Collection Process

  1. Athlete Selection: An athlete can be selected for testing at any time and any place.
  2. Notification: A Doping Control Officer (DCO) or chaperone will notify the athlete of their
    selection and outline their rights and responsibilities.
  3. Reporting to the Doping Control Station: The athlete should report to the doping control
    station immediately after being notified. The DCO may allow a delay in reporting for a valid
  4. Sample Collection Equipment: The athlete is given a choice of individually sealed sample
    collection vessels and kits to choose from.
  5. They must inspect the equipment and verify the sample code numbers.
  6. Collecting the sample:
    • For a urine sample:
      • Providing the sample: The athlete will be asked to provide the sample under the
        direct observation of a DCO or witnessing chaperone of the same gender.
      • Volume: A minimum 90mL is required for urine samples. If the first sample is not
        90mL, the athlete may be asked to wait and provide an additional sample.
      • Splitting the sample: The athlete will split their sample into A and B bottles.
      • Sealing the samples: The athlete will seal the A and B bottles in accordance with
        the DCO’s instructions.
      • Measuring specific gravity: The DCO will measure the specific gravity of the
        sample to ensure it is not too dilute to analyze. If it is too dilute, the athlete may
        be asked to provide additional samples.
    • For a blood sample:
      • The athlete will be asked to remain seated and relaxed for at least 10 minute before undergoing venipuncture (only for the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) blood samples).
      • The Blood Collection Officer (BCO) will ask for the athlete’s non-dominant arm, apply a tourniquet to the upper arm, and clean the skin at the puncture site.
      • The BCO will draw blood from the athlete and fill each Vacutainer blood tube with the required volume of blood.
      • The BCO will place the Vacutainer tubes into the A and B kits (only one vial may be necessary if the blood sample is collected as part of an ABP program).
  1. Completing the Doping Control Form (DCF): The athlete will check and confirm that all of the
    information is correct, including the sample code number and their declaration of medications
    and/or products they have used. They will also be asked their consent for the use of the
    sample for research purposes. They will receive a copy of the DCF and should keep it.
  2. Laboratory Process: All samples are sent to WADA accredited laboratories for analysis.

7. Whereabouts

What are testing pools and why are whereabouts important for clean sport?

Out-of-competition testing with no-advance notice is one of the most powerful means of deterrence
and detection of doping. To support this type of testing, the ILS has created testing pools as part of its testing program.

Certain athletes in the ILS testing pools are required to provide information on their whereabouts in
ADAMS, WADA’s online anti-doping administration and management system.

The ILS updates the composition of the testing pools yearly. Athletes in the TP are chosen based on
set criteria.

How do athletes know they need to provide whereabouts?

Athletes who need to provide whereabouts in ADAMS are notified by the ILS of their inclusion in a
testing pool as well as what information exactly is required of them, how to use ADAMS, deadlines to
submit this information and any consequences if the information required is not submitted.

Should athletes have any query on ADAMS, such as how to submit whereabouts, please refer to the
ADAMS Help Center or contact the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator at

Tips for RTP/TP athletes

  • Set a calendar reminder of the key dates/deadlines to submit quarterly whereabouts information
  • For RTP athletes only: Set an alarm for the start of the 60-minute time slot
  • Be as specific as possible when submitting your whereabouts information
  • Make modifications to your whereabouts information when changes occur
  • If you have any doubts, please contact the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator ( ] or use the ADAMS Help Centre if you require technical support with ADAMS
  • Download the app Athlete Central in order to facilitate all the processes related to the whereabouts system
  • Check the WADA Q&A Whereabouts
  • Check the At-a-Glance: Athlete Whereabouts

8. Report Doping

Every time someone steps forward with information on doping, we move closer to a clean and fair
playing field for all. As an athlete, athlete support personnel or any person aware of doping practices
has a duty to report their suspicions to WADA, their IF or NADO, even if you are not sure about what
you witnessed.

Many ADOs, including WADA, have online, confidential tools to report suspicious behavior. Every
piece of information is important.

Report doping or any concern about doping to the ILS Anti-Doping Administrator (

9. Education Tools

A key principle of WADA’s World Anti-Doping Code International Standard for Education (ISE) is that the first encounter with clean sport and anti-doping should be for athletes to be educated before being tested. 

Against this background it is strongly recommended that all athletes, team coaches, medical personnel, and parents/carers as well as officials and administrators review the sport integrity information and, as appropriate to their role, complete their equivalent National Anti-Drug Organisation (NADO) or WADA online training relevant to their role.

The WADA training may be found at:

ADEL, the global Anti-Doping Education and Learning platform.

ADEL is a global platform that provides education and learning opportunities for those who need to
know all things about clean sport and anti-doping.

ADEL courses for athletes:

  • Privacy and Information Security Awareness for Athletes
  • Athlete’s Guide to the 2021 Code
  • At-a-Glance: Athlete Whereabouts
  • At-a-Glance: Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUE)
  • At-a-Glance: Anti-Doping Overview
  • Dried Blood Spot (DBS) Testing – The Basics
  • Factsheet – Glucocorticoid Injections
  • ADEL for International-Level Athletes
  • Guide to the List 2023
  • ADEL for National-Level Athletes
  • ADEL for Registered Testing Pool Athletes
  • Welcome to Sport Values
    • Respect
    • Equity
    • Inclusion
  • ADEL for Talented Level Athletes
  • Recertification course for International-Level Athletes/National Level-Athletes

ADEL courses for athlete support personnel:

  • ADEL for High Performance Coaches
  • Factsheet for Medical Professionals – Glucocorticoid Injection
  • ADEL for Medical Professionals
  • ADEL for Medical Professionals at Major Games
  • ADEL for Parents of Elite Athletes
  • Athlete Support Personnel Guide to the Code 2021
  • Sport Values in Every Classroom

10. Sanctions and Reports

List of Suspended Athletes

This list is intended to inform the ILS member organisations on the athletes declared to have committed an anti-doping rule violation and sanctioned with a period of ineligibility in accordance with the ILS Anti-Doping Rules.

During their period of inedibility, the below listed athletes are prohibited to compete in all Lifesaving or other sport events with a WADA compliant anti-doping policy.

The athletes will become automatically re-eligible after expiry of their period of ineligibility.

SportAnti-Doping Rule ViolatedAthleteDate of BirthNationSexProhibited Substance or MethodDate of InfractionConsequences Imposed
LifesavingArticle 4.2.2 of the ADR: use of Prohibited substances Tanya Pieterse16/11/1999South AfricaFOxandrolone Metabolites, OxM1 and OxM2 and Clenbuterol24/04/20213 years of ineligibility: 01/07/2021 until 30/06/2024

Statistical report of doping control activities

11. Definitions

  • International-Level Athlete (ILA): Athletes who compete in sport at the international level, as defined by each International Federation, consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations (= National team Lifesaving athletes that represent the top 15 nations based on the previous World Championships results)
  • National-Level Athlete (NLA): Athletes who compete in sport at the national level, as defined by each National Anti-Doping Organization.
  • Event period: The time between the beginning and end of an event, as established by the ruling body of the event.
  • In-competition period: The period commencing at 11:59 p.m. on the day before a competition in which the athlete is scheduled to participate through the end of such competition and the sample collection process related to such competition.
  • Out-of-competition period: Any period which is not in-competition.